Sunday, May 24, 2015

Directing-Principles and Process


DIRECTING is said to be a process in which the managers instruct, guide and oversee the performance of the workers to achieve predetermined goals. Directing is said to be the heart of management process. Planningorganizing, staffing have got no importance if direction function does not take place.
Directing initiates action and it is from here actual work starts. Direction is said to be consisting of human factors. In simple words, it can be described as providing guidance to workers is doing work. In field of management, direction is said to be all those activities which are designed to encourage the subordinates to work effectively and efficiently. According to Human, “Directing consists of process or technique by which instruction can be issued and operations can be carried out as originally planned” Therefore, Directing is the function of guiding, inspiring, overseeing and instructing people towards accomplishment of organizational goals.
Direction has got following characteristics:
  1. Pervasive Function - Directing is required at all levels of organization. Every manager provides guidance and inspiration to his subordinates.
  2. Continuous Activity - Direction is a continuous activity as it continuous throughout the life of organization.
  3. Human Factor - Directing function is related to subordinates and therefore it is related to human factor. Since human factor is complex and behaviour is unpredictable, direction function becomes important.
  4. Creative Activity - Direction function helps in converting plans into performance. Without this function, people become inactive and physical resources are meaningless.
  5. Executive Function - Direction function is carried out by all managers and executives at all levels throughout the working of an enterprise, a subordinate receives instructions from his superior only.
  6. Delegate Function - Direction is supposed to be a function dealing with human beings. Human behaviour is unpredictable by nature and conditioning the people’s behaviour towards the goals of the enterprise is what the executive does in this function. Therefore, it is termed as having delicacy in it to tackle human behaviour.
Important principles of directing:
(1) Principle of Maximum Individual Contribution:
According to this principle, management should adopt that directing policy through which the employees get motivated and give their maximum individual contribution for the achievement of organisational objective.
(2) Principle of Harmony of Objectives:
According to this principle, there must be full coordination between organisational and individual objectives. Employees work in an organisation with an objective to get better remuneration, promotion, etc. On the other hand, organisational goal can be to earn more profits and to increase market share.
Sometimes it is seen that there is a conflict between the objectives of both the parties, e.g., organisation wants that it should get a major share of profit whereas employees perceives that as they work directly on the job, so more profit must be shared among them in the form of bonus.
Management here must establish coordination between the objectives of both the parties/factors by adopting suitable method of direction.
(3) Principle of Unity of Command:
According to this principle, a subordinate should get directions from one officer at a time. If the subordinate gets directions from more than one officer, the subordinate will be unable to priorities his work.
As a result, situation of confusion, conflict and disarrangement is created. By following this principle, effective direction takes place.
(4) Principle of Appropriateness of Direction Technique:
According to this principle, appropriate direction techniques should be used, e.g., to supervise effectively, to provide able leadership, to adopt free communication and to motivate through right medium.
(5) Principle of Managerial Communication:
According to this principle, it should be monitored by the management that the subordinates get the same meaning for what has been said. This simplifies the job of the subordinates and they need not go to the managers repeatedly for enquiring.
(6) Principle of Use of Informal Organisation:
According to this principle, there must be a free flow of information between the seniors and the subordinates. The success of direction depends upon effective exchange of information to a great extent.
Information should be given both through formal and informal mediums. Special attention should be given to the informal organisation. This strengthens the formal organisation.
(7) Principle of Leadership:
According to this principle, while giving directions to the subordinates a good leadership must be provided by the managers. By this, subordinates get influenced by the managers. In this situation, subordinates act according to the wish of the managers.
(8) Principle of Follow Through:
According to this principle, it must be monitored by management as to what extent the policies framed and issued directions have been enforced. Thus, it must be seen whether the employees are following the management or not.
If yes, then to what extent. As per this principle, the job of managers is not to sit idle after framing policies or issuing directions but to continuously take feedback. The advantage of this will be that if there is any problem in implementing a policy or a direction it can be removed then and there.